STD TESTING CENTER
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Seven Hills Medical Centers offers private herpes testing and treatment.
Herpes is a
common sexually transmitted disease that is referred to as herpes simplex.
While many people associate herpes exclusively with STDs (herpes simplex virus
2 or HSV-2), other types of herpes such as cold sores (herpes simplex virus 1
or HSV-1), chicken pox and shingles are also part of the herpes family.
Herpes can occur anywhere on the skin, and can be painful
and embarrassing. The herpes virus blends into the DNA of the genes it infects
and makes copies of those genes to spread to other individuals. As the immune
symptoms weakens, blisters occur. This is what is commonly referred to as a
A blood test or culture can identify the presence of herpes,
and a number of medications are available to reduce or prevent future herpes
outbreaks. Herpes can be serious if it infects people with weakened immune
At Seven Hills Medical Centers, we offer private and
confidential Herpes 1 and 2 testing, using the ELISA testing technique. With years
of experience and board certified physician, you can be assured that you will
get the best medical care. We allow for a confidential in-room check-in/check
out process for the ultimate in privacy. Our staff is always caring, supportive
and will do everything they can to make your visit comfortable.
What is Genital herpes?
Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD)
caused by the herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2). Most
genital herpes is caused by HSV-2. Most individuals have no or only minimal
signs or symptoms from HSV-1 or HSV-2 infection. When signs do occur, they
typically appear as one or more blisters on or around the genitals or rectum.
The blisters break, leaving tender ulcers (sores) that may take two to four
weeks to heal the first time they occur. Typically, another outbreak can appear
weeks or months after the first, but it almost always is less severe and
shorter than the first outbreak. Although the infection can stay in the body
indefinitely, the number of outbreaks tends to decrease over a period of years.
How common is genital herpes?
Results of a nationally representative study show that
genital herpes infection is common in the United States. Nationwide, 16.2%, or
about one out of six, people 14 to 49 years of age have genital HSV-2
infection. Over the past decade, the percentage of Americans with genital
herpes infection in the U.S. has remained stable.
Genital HSV-2 infection is more common in women
(approximately one out of five women 14 to 49 years of age) than in men (about
one out of nine men 14 to 49 years of age). Transmission from an infected male
to his female partner is more likely than from an infected female to her male
How do people get genital herpes?
HSV-1 and HSV-2 can be found in and released from the sores
that the viruses cause, but they also are released between outbreaks from skin
that does not appear to have a sore. Generally, a person can only get HSV-2
infection during sexual contact with someone who has a genital HSV-2 infection.
Transmission can occur from an infected partner who does not have a visible
sore and may not know that he or she is infected.
HSV-1 can cause genital herpes, but it more commonly causes
infections of the mouth and lips, so-called "fever blisters." HSV-1
infection of the genitals can be caused by oral-genital or genital-genital
contact with a person who has HSV-1 infection. Genital HSV-1 outbreaks recur
less regularly than genital HSV-2 outbreaks.
What are the signs and symptoms of genital herpes?
Most people infected with HSV-2 are not aware of their
infection. However, if signs and symptoms occur during the first outbreak, they
can be quite pronounced. The first outbreak usually occurs within two weeks
after the virus is transmitted, and the sores typically heal within two to four
weeks. Other signs and symptoms during the primary episode may include a second
crop of sores, and flu-like symptoms, including fever and swollen glands.
However, most individuals with HSV-2 infection never have sores, or they have
very mild signs that they do not even notice or that they mistake for insect
bites or another skin condition.
People diagnosed with a first episode of genital herpes can
expect to have several (typically four or five) outbreaks (symptomatic
recurrences) within a year. Over time these recurrences usually decrease in
frequency. It is possible that a person becomes aware of the "first
episode" years after the infection is acquired.
What are the complications of genital herpes?
Genital herpes can cause recurrent painful genital sores in
many adults, and herpes infection can be severe in people with suppressed
immune systems. Regardless of severity of symptoms, genital herpes frequently
causes psychological distress in people who know they are infected.
In addition, genital HSV can lead to potentially fatal
infections in babies. It is important that women avoid contracting herpes
during pregnancy because a newly acquired infection during late pregnancy poses
a greater risk of transmission to the baby. If a woman has active genital
herpes at delivery, a cesarean delivery is usually performed. Fortunately,
infection of a baby from a woman with herpes infection is rare.
Herpes may play a role in the spread of HIV, the virus that
causes AIDS. Herpes can make people more susceptible to HIV infection, and it
can make HIV-infected individuals more infectious.
How is genital herpes diagnosed?
The signs and symptoms associated with HSV-2 can vary
greatly. Health care providers can diagnose genital herpes by visual inspection
if the outbreak is typical, and by taking a sample from the sore(s) and testing
it in a laboratory. HSV infections can be diagnosed between outbreaks by the
use of a blood test. Blood tests, which detect antibodies to HSV-1 or HSV-2
infection, can be helpful, although the results are not always clear-cut.
Is there a treatment for herpes?
There is no treatment that can cure herpes, but antiviral
medications can shorten and prevent outbreaks during the period of time the
person takes the medication. In addition, daily suppressive therapy for
symptomatic herpes can reduce transmission to partners.
How can herpes be prevented?
The surest way to avoid transmission of sexually transmitted
diseases, including genital herpes, is to abstain from sexual contact, or to be
in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been
tested and is known to be uninfected.
Genital ulcer diseases can occur in both male and female
genital areas that are covered or protected by a latex condom, as well as in
areas that are not covered. Correct and consistent use of latex condoms can
reduce the risk of genital herpes.
Persons with herpes should abstain from sexual activity with
uninfected partners when lesions or other symptoms of herpes are present. It is
important to know that even if a person does not have any symptoms he or she
can still infect sex partners. Sex partners of infected persons should be
advised that they may become infected and they should use condoms to reduce the
risk. Sex partners can seek testing to determine if they are infected with HSV.
A positive HSV-2 blood test most likely indicates a genital herpes infection.
Doctors refer to the infection commonly known as
"herpes" as herpes simplex. The herpes simplex virus can cause sores
anywhere on a person's skin. It usually occurs around the mouth and nose or the
buttocks and genitals. Herpes simplex infection is painful, embarrassing and
often, will reappear again and again.
Say the word "herpes" and most people think of the
sexually transmitted disease genital herpes. But herpes is actually the name of
a family of viruses, which includes the cold sore virus (HSV-1), genital herpes
(HSV-2), infectious mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr Virus), chicken pox and
shingles (varicella zoster virus).
The two Herpes Simplex viruses, HSV-1 and HSV-2, look
identical under the microscope, and either type can infect the mouth or
genitals. Most commonly, however, HSV-1 occurs above the waist, and HSV-2
These viruses blend into the DNA of genes after they infect,
especially in the nerves. They try to force the body to make copies of them so
they can spread to other people. The body's immune system resists this. When
one's immune system is weakened, the virus finds a path to the skin and leaks
out in tiny blisters. This is referred to as having a recurrence.
or unusual tenderness of the skin may begin between one to several days before
Rarely, herpes can be serious in those with weak immune
systems, such as newborn babies. More often, herpes is a mild infection. Many
people who are infected don't even know that they are, and instead think they
are having some chaffing or skin irritation. Years later, when there is a
recurrence of HSV, it may be mistaken for an initial attack. This can lead to
unfair accusations of infidelity.
Herpes simplex is very common. At least one in six adults in
the United States has HSV-2 and half to three quarter of all adults test
positive to HSV 1. But only 10% of those exposed get visible sores.
Maintaining general good health and keeping stress to a
minimum give the best possible chance to limit recurrences. Fortunately,
recurrent infections tend to be milder than the initial attack. Also, HSV-1
infections tend to have fewer recurrences than HSV-2. Both may be set off by a
variety of stress factors including fever, stress, irritation at a site
previously infected, sun exposure and menstruation.
However, for many the
recurrence is unpredictable and has no recognizable cause.
Take care of the affected skin area. Keep the area dry and
clean during outbreaks to help healing. Avoid physical contact with the area
from the time of the first symptoms (tingling, itching, burning) until all
sores are completely healed, not just scabbed-over. Wash hands with soap and
water if a sore is touched. Better yet, don't touch the sores as the virus can
spread. HSV may infect the eye and lead to a condition called herpes keratitis.
It feels like there is something in the eye. There is also pain and sensitivity
to light and a discharge. This can cause serious eye damage if not promptly
There is a vaccine to prevent herpes being tested, but it
has not been approved by the FDA for general use. Several oral anti-viral
medications (Zovirax, Famvir and Valtrex) have been developed for severe or
frequently returning infections.
Low doses are sometimes helpful in reducing
the number of herpes attacks in people with frequent outbreaks. There is some
evidence that taking these will make HSV less contagious. People who have taken
Famvir with the initial attack seem to have fewer recurrences.
Prevention of this disease, which is contagious before and
during an outbreak, is important. If tingling, burning, itching or tenderness
-- signs of a recurrence -- occur in an area of the body where there was a
herpes infection, then that area should be kept away from other people. With
mouth lesions, one should avoid kissing and sharing cups or lip balms. For
persons with genital herpes, this means avoiding sexual relations and oral
and/or genital contact during the period of symptoms or active lesions. Towels
should not be shared nor clothing exchanged.
Seven Hills Medical Centers offers private and confidential Chlamydia
testing and treatment in NYC metro area. Chlamydia is caused by the bacteria Chlamydia
Trachomatis and is the most common STD in the country. Many carriers of the
disease may not even realize they are infected, as symptoms are not always
More than 25% of men and 30% of women with Chlamydia will
not experience symptoms. Symptoms are similar to gonorrhea and may include a
burning sensation, discharge, tenderness and/or pain. Although the disease may
appear to be "symptom free," it can lead to serious complications if
left untreated, especially for women. Women may develop pelvic inflammatory
disease, also known as PID, which can cause infertility. Women who contract the
disease while pregnant may experience premature labor and/or pass elements of
the disease to the baby.
Because the presence of Chlamydia is often undetectable,
it's important that this test be included in routine STD screenings. Those with
gonorrhea or syphilis are still at risk for contracting Chlamydia and should
take care to protect themselves from exposure. Further, the disease can be
transferred back and forth so it's important that anyone who's been exposed
seek medical treatment.
Seven Hills Medical Center
offers a safe and private environment for Chlamydia testing and treatment. A simple test
can be conducted the same day and, if positive, a prescription of antibiotics
will be prescribed for the treatment of Chlamydia.
When treated early, antibiotics are very effective and can
prevent long-term complications.
Call us today to schedule a confidential
Chlamydia Treatment and Testing
Brief facts about Chlamydia:
* Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease
* Chlamydia is caused by a bacterium called Chlamydia
Chlamydia is the most commonly diagnosed sexual infection
* Chlamydia is the most frequently reported bacterial
sexually transmitted disease in the United States.
What is Chlamydia?
Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD)
caused by the bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, which can damage a woman's
reproductive organs. Even though symptoms of chlamydia are usually mild or
absent, serious complications that cause irreversible damage, including
infertility, can occur "silently" before a woman ever recognizes a
problem. Chlamydia also can cause discharge from the penis of an infected man.
How common is chlamydia?
Chlamydia is the most frequently reported bacterial sexually
transmitted disease in the United States. In 2008, 1,210,523 chlamydial
infections were reported to CDC from 50 states and the District of Columbia.
Under-reporting is substantial because most people with chlamydia are not aware
of their infections and do not seek testing. Also, testing is not often done if
patients are treated for their symptoms. An estimated 2,291,000
non-institutionalized U.S. civilians ages 14-39 are infected with C.
trachomatis based on the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Women are frequently re-infected if their sex partners are not treated.
How do people get chlamydia?
Chlamydia can be transmitted during vaginal, anal, or oral
sex. Chlamydia can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby during
Any sexually active person can be infected with chlamydia.
The greater the number of sex partners, the greater the risk of infection.
Because the cervix (opening to the uterus) of teenage girls and young women is
not fully matured and is probably more susceptible to infection, they are at
particularly high risk for infection if sexually active. Since chlamydia can be
transmitted by oral or anal sex, men who have sex with men are also at risk for
What are the symptoms of chlamydia?
Chlamydia is known as a "silent" disease because
the majority of infected people have no symptoms. If symptoms do occur, they
usually appear within 1 to 3 weeks after exposure.
In women, the bacteria initially infect the cervix and the
urethra (urine canal). Women who have symptoms might have an abnormal vaginal
discharge or a burning sensation when urinating. If the infection spreads from
the cervix to the fallopian tubes (tubes that carry fertilized eggs from the
ovaries to the uterus), some women still have no signs or symptoms; others have
lower abdominal pain, low back pain, nausea, fever, pain during intercourse, or
bleeding between menstrual periods. Chlamydial infection of the cervix can
spread to the rectum.
Men with signs or symptoms might have a discharge from their
penis or a burning sensation when urinating. Men might also have burning and
itching around the opening of the penis. Pain and swelling in the testicles are
Men or women who have receptive anal intercourse may acquire
chlamydial infection in the rectum, which can cause rectal pain, discharge, or
bleeding. Chlamydia can also be found in the throats of women and men having
oral sex with an infected partner.
What complications can result from untreated chlamydia?
If untreated, chlamydial infections can progress to serious
reproductive and other health problems with both short-term and long-term
consequences. Like the disease itself, the damage that chlamydia causes is
STDs & Infertility
In women, untreated infection can spread into the uterus or
fallopian tubes and cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). This happens in
about 10 to 15 percent of women with untreated chlamydia. Chlamydia can also
cause fallopian tube infection without any symptoms. PID and "silent"
infection in the upper genital tract can cause permanent damage to the
fallopian tubes, uterus, and surrounding tissues. The damage can lead to
chronic pelvic pain, infertility, and potentially fatal ectopic pregnancy
(pregnancy outside the uterus). Chlamydia may also increase the chances of
becoming infected with HIV, if exposed.
To help prevent the serious consequences of chlamydia,
screening at least annually for chlamydia is recommended for all sexually active
women age 25 years and younger. An annual screening test also is recommended
for older women with risk factors for chlamydia (a new sex partner or multiple
sex partners). All pregnant women should have a screening test for chlamydia.
Complications among men are rare. Infection sometimes
spreads to the epididymis (the tube that carries sperm from the testis),
causing pain, fever, and, rarely, sterility.
Rarely, genital chlamydial infection can cause arthritis
that can be accompanied by skin lesions and inflammation of the eye and urethra
How does chlamydia affect a pregnant woman and her baby? STDs & Pregnancy
In pregnant women, there is some evidence that untreated
chlamydial infections can lead to premature delivery. Babies who are born to
infected mothers can get chlamydial infections in their eyes and respiratory
tracts. Chlamydia is a leading cause of early infant pneumonia and
conjunctivitis (pink eye) in newborns.
How is chlamydia diagnosed?
There are laboratory tests to diagnose chlamydia. Some can
be performed on urine, other tests require that a specimen be collected from a
site such as the penis or cervix.
What is the treatment for chlamydia?
Chlamydia can be easily treated and cured with antibiotics.
A single dose of azithromycin or a week of doxycycline (twice daily) are the
most commonly used treatments. HIV-positive persons with chlamydia should
receive the same treatment as those who are HIV negative.
All sex partners should be evaluated, tested, and treated.
Persons with chlamydia should abstain from sexual intercourse until they and
their sex partners have completed treatment, otherwise re-infection is
Women whose sex partners have not been appropriately treated
are at high risk for re-infection. Having multiple infections increases a
woman's risk of serious reproductive health complications, including
infertility. Retesting should be encouraged three months after treatment of an
initial infection. This is especially true if a woman does not know if her sex
partner received treatment.
How can chlamydia be prevented?
The surest way to avoid transmission of STDs is to abstain
from sexual contact, or to be in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship
with a partner who has been tested and is known to be uninfected.
Latex male condoms, when used consistently and correctly,
can reduce the risk of transmission of chlamydia.
CDC recommends yearly chlamydia testing of all sexually active
women age 25 or younger, older women with risk factors for chlamydial
infections (those who have a new sex partner or multiple sex partners), and all
pregnant women. An appropriate sexual risk assessment by a health care provider
should always be conducted and may indicate more frequent screening for some
Any genital symptoms such as an unusual sore, discharge with
odor, burning during urination, or bleeding between menstrual cycles could mean
an STD infection. If a woman has any of these symptoms, she should stop having
sex and consult a health care provider immediately. Treating STDs early can
prevent PID. Women who are told they have an STD and are treated for it should
notify all of their recent sex partners (sex partners within the preceding 60
days) so they can see a health care provider and be evaluated for STDs. Sexual
activity should not resume until all sex partners have been examined and, if
Gonorrhea is caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhea and
is a common STD. Over 700,000 people contract the disease each year. Its
presence is particularly widespread in large metropolitan areas such as New
Gonorrhea symptoms usually occur two to five days and can
include burning sensations, discharge, pain, increased urination, swollenness
and/or even a sore throat.
Men may sometimes not experience symptoms for more
than a month, and some people may not experience symptoms at all. Women may
experience pain in the lower abdomen if the disease spreads to the fallopian
tubes and may exhibit feverish symptoms.
If the disease gets into the bloodstream, fever, rash and
arthritic-type symptoms may occur.
For women, it's especially important to
treat gonorrhea as quickly as possible to avoid long-term complications that
may include scarring of the fallopian tubes, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
or sterility. If detected early on, a course of antibiotics can be very
effective at treating the disease for both men and women.
More than half of people with gonorrhea also have Chlamydia.
If both diseases are present, they can be treated at the same time. Typically,
a DNA test is used to screen for gonorrhea as it is more effective at
identifying the disease than a standard culture.
Seven Hills Medical Centers offers private and confidential
gonorrhea testing and treatment in NYC. We've been in practice for more than 20
years and treat our patients with the utmost care, respect and courtesy. Our
practice consists of a medical and dermatological office so nobody will know
the nature of your visit. Call us today to schedule a confidential gonorrhea
test in New York.
GONORRHEA - GET THE FACTS
Anyone who is sexually active can get gonorrhea.
* If they occur, symptoms in men and women vary depending on
what part of the body is infected: Gonorrhea can affect the anus, eyes, mouth,
genitals, or throat.
* This disease can impact a woman's ability to have children
if left untreated.
What is gonorrhea?
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Gonorrhea
is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a bacterium that can grow and multiply
easily in the warm, moist areas of the reproductive tract, including the cervix
(opening to the womb), uterus (womb), and fallopian tubes (egg canals) in
women, and in the urethra (urine canal) in women and men. The bacterium can
also grow in the mouth, throat, eyes, and anus.
How common is gonorrhea?
Gonorrhea is a very common infectious disease. CDC estimates
that more than 700,000 persons in the U.S. get new gonorrheal infections each
year. Only about half of these infections are reported to CDC. In 2006, 358,366
cases of gonorrhea were reported to CDC. In the period from 1975 to 1997, the
national gonorrhea rate declined, following the implementation of the national
gonorrhea control program in the mid-1970s. After several years of stable
gonorrhea rates, however, the national gonorrhea rate increased for the second
consecutive year. In 2006, the rate of reported gonorrheal infections was 120.9
per 100,000 persons.
How do people get gonorrhea?
Gonorrhea is spread through contact with the penis, vagina,
mouth, or anus. Ejaculation does not have to occur for gonorrhea to be
transmitted or acquired. Gonorrhea can also be spread from mother to baby
People who have had gonorrhea and received treatment may get
infected again if they have sexual contact with a person infected with
Who is at risk for gonorrhea?
Any sexually active person can be infected with gonorrhea.
In the United States, the highest reported rates of infection are among
sexually active teenagers, young adults, and African Americans.
What are the signs and symptoms of gonorrhea?
Some men with gonorrhea may have no symptoms at all.
However, some men have signs or symptoms that appear two to five days after
infection; symptoms can take as long as 30 days to appear. Symptoms and signs
include a burning sensation when urinating, or a white, yellow, or green
discharge from the penis.
Sometimes men with gonorrhea get painful or swollen testicles.
In women, the symptoms of gonorrhea are often mild, but most
women who are infected have no symptoms. Even when a woman has symptoms, they
can be so non-specific as to be mistaken for a bladder or vaginal infection.
The initial symptoms and signs in women include a painful or burning sensation
when urinating, increased vaginal discharge, or vaginal bleeding between
periods. Women with gonorrhea are at risk of developing serious complications
from the infection, regardless of the presence or severity of symptoms.
Symptoms of rectal infection in both men and women may
include discharge, anal itching, soreness, bleeding, or painful bowel
movements. Rectal infection also may cause no symptoms. Infections in the
throat may cause a sore throat, but usually causes no symptoms.
Seven Hills Medical Centers offers private and confidential
HIV testing in New York Metro Area.
HIV is also known as the human
immunodeficiency virus and it is the virus that causes AIDS. The disease
weakens the body's ability to fight infections and is terminal. There are no
known cures for HIV/AIDS at this time, however, medications can slow the pace
at which the virus manifests itself and lessen its side effects.
HIV infections can take two different forms: HIV-1 and
HIV-2. Most case of HIV in the United States are of the HIV-1 variety. AIDS,
also known as Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, is the most advanced version
HIV is a sexually transmitted disease, but can also be
transmitted through contaminated blood. Mothers are at risk for passing the
disease to their children before, during or after birth. Almost half of all
mothers who are carriers of HIV result in the baby receiving the disease.
Seven Hills Medical Center offers the ELISA test in our certified in-house
lab. We can have results ready in 15 minutes while you wait. Our testing is private and confidential for your
Additionally, we employ highly professional, experienced
and caring staff to answer your questions and make you feel comfortable. Please
contact us today to schedule an HIV test in New York Metro Area.
CDC estimates that more than one million people are living
with HIV in the United States.
One in five (21%) of those people living with
HIV is unaware of their infection.
Despite increases in the total number of people living with
HIV in the US in recent years, the annual number of new HIV infections has
remained relatively stable.
However, new infections continue at far too high a
level, with an estimated 56,300 Americans becoming infected with HIV each year.
More than 18,000 people with AIDS still die each year in the
Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM)†
are strongly affected and represent the majority of persons who have died.
Through 2007, more than 576,000 people with AIDS in the US have died since the
By Risk Group
Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM): By
risk group, gay, bisexual, and other MSM of all races remain the population
most severely affected by HIV.
MSM account for more than half (53%) of all new HIV
infections in the U.S. each year, as well as nearly half (48%) of people living
While CDC estimates that MSM account for just 4% of the US
male population aged 13 and older, the rate of new HIV diagnoses among MSM in
the US is more than 44 times that of other men and more than 40 times that of
White MSM account for the largest number of annual new HIV
infections of any group in the US, followed closely by black MSM.
MSM is the only risk group in the U.S. in which new HIV
infections have been increasing since the early 1990s.
Heterosexuals and Injection Drug Users: Heterosexuals and
injection drug users also continue to be affected by HIV.
Individuals infected through heterosexual contact account
for 31% of annual new HIV infections and 28% of people living with HIV.
As a group, women account for 27% of annual new HIV
infections and 25% of those living with HIV.
Injection drug users represent 12% of annual new HIV
infections and 19% of those living with HIV.
African Americans: Among racial/ethnic groups, African
Americans face the most severe burden of HIV and AIDS in the nation.
While blacks represent approximately 12% of the U.S.
population, they account for almost half (46%) of people living with HIV in the
US, as well as nearly half (45%) of new infections each year.
among blacks overall have been roughly stable since the early 1990s.
At some point in their life, approximately one in 16 black
men will be diagnosed with HIV, as will one in 30 black women.
The rate of new HIV infections for black men is about six
times as high as that of white men, nearly three times that of Hispanic/Latino
men, and more than twice that of black women.
The HIV incidence rate for black women is nearly 15 times as
high as that of white women, and nearly four times that of Hispanic/Latino
Hispanics/Latinos: Hispanics/Latinos are also
Hispanics/Latinos represent 15% of the population but
account for an estimated 17% of people living with HIV and 17% of new
infections. HIV infections among Hispanics/Latinos overall have been roughly
stable since the early 1990s.
The rate of new HIV infections among Hispanic/Latino men is
more than double that of white men and the rate among Hispanic/Latino women is
nearly four times that of white women.
What is HIV and how can I get it?
HIV - the human immunodeficiency virus - is a virus that
kills your body's "CD4 cells." CD4 cells (also called T-helper cells)
help your body fight off infection and disease. HIV can be passed from person
to person if someone with HIV infection has sex with or shares drug injection
needles with another person. It also can be passed from a mother to her baby
when she is pregnant, when she delivers the baby, or if she breastfeeds her
What is AIDS?
AIDS - the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - is a disease
you get when HIV destroys your body's immune system. Normally, your immune
system helps you fight off illness. When your immune system fails you can
become very sick and can die.
What do I need to know about HIV?
The first cases of AIDS were identified in the United States
in 1981, but AIDS most likely existed here and in other parts of the world for
many years before that time. In 1984 scientists proved that HIV causes AIDS.
Anyone can get HIV. The most important thing to know is how
you can get the virus.
You can get HIV:
• By having unprotected sex- sex without a condom- with
someone who has HIV. The virus can be in an infected person's blood, semen, or
vaginal secretions and can enter your body through tiny cuts or sores in your
skin, or in the lining of your vagina, penis, rectum, or mouth.
• By sharing a needle and syringe to inject drugs or sharing
drug equipment used to prepare drugs for injection with someone who has HIV.
• From a blood transfusion or blood clotting factor that you
got before 1985. (But today it is unlikely you could get infected that way
because all blood in the United States has been tested for HIV since 1985.)
Babies born to women with HIV also can become infected
during pregnancy, birth, or breast-feeding.
You cannot get HIV:
• By working with or being around someone who has HIV.
• From sweat, spit, tears, clothes, drinking fountains,
phones, toilet seats, or through everyday things like sharing a meal.
• From insect bites or stings.
• From donating blood.
• From a closed-mouth kiss (but there is a very small chance
of getting it from open-mouthed or "French" kissing with an infected
person because of possible blood contact).
How can I protect myself?
- • Don't share needles and syringes used to inject drugs,
steroids, vitamins, or for tattooing or body piercing. Also, don't share
equipment ("works") used to prepare drugs to be injected. Many people
have been infected with HIV, hepatitis, and other germs this way. Germs from an
infected person can stay in a needle and then be injected directly into the
next person who uses the needle.
- The surest way to avoid transmission of sexually
transmitted diseases is to abstain from sexual intercourse, or to be in a long term
mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and you
know is uninfected.
- For persons whose sexual behaviors place them at risk for
STDs, correct and consistent use of the male latex condom can reduce the risk
of STD transmission. However, no protective method is 100 percent effective,
and condom use cannot guarantee absolute protection against any STD. The more
sex partners you have, the greater your chances are of getting HIV or other
diseases passed through sex.
- Condoms used with a lubricant are less likely to break.
However, condoms with the spermicide nonoxynol-9 are not recommended for
STD/HIV prevention. Condoms must be used correctly and consistently to be
effective and protective. Incorrect use can lead to condom slippage or breakage,
thus diminishing the protective effect. Inconsistent use, e.g., failure to use
condoms with every act of intercourse, can result in STD transmission because
transmission can occur with a single act of intercourse.
- Don't share razors or toothbrushes because of they may
have the blood of another person on them.
- If you are pregnant or think you might be soon, talk to a
doctor or your local health department about being tested for HIV. If you share
HIV, drug treatments are available to help you and they can reduce the chance
of passing HIV to your baby.
How do I know if I have HIV or AIDS?
You might have HIV and still feel perfectly healthy. The
only way to know for sure if you are infected or not is to be tested. Talk with
a knowledgeable health care provider or counselor both before and after you are
tested. You can go to your doctor or health department for testing. To find out
where to go in your area for HIV counseling and testing, call your local health
department or the CDC INFO, at 1-800-CDC-INFO (232-4636).
Your doctor or health care provider can give you a
confidential HIV test. The information on your HIV test and test results are
confidential, as is your other medical information. This means it can be shared
only with people authorized to see your medical records. You can ask your
doctor, health care provider, or HIV counselor at the place you are tested to
explain who can obtain this information. For example, you may want to ask
whether your insurance company could find out your HIV status if you make a
claim for health insurance benefits or apply for life insurance or disability
CDC recommends that everyone know their HIV status. How
often you should an HIV test depends on your circumstances. If you have never
been tested for HIV, you should be tested. CDC recommends being tested at least
once a year if you do things that can transmit HIV infection, such as:
• injecting drugs or steroids with used injection equipment
- having sex for money or drugs
- having sex with an HIV infected person
- having more than one sex partner since your HIV test
- having a sex partner who has had other sex partners since
your last HIV test.
If you have been tested for HIV and the result is negative
and you never do things that might transmit
In many states, you can be tested anonymously. These tests
are usually given at special places known as anonymous testing sites. When you
get an anonymous HIV test, the testing site records only a number or code with
the test result, not your name. A counselor gives you this number at the time
your blood, saliva, or urine is taken for the test, then you return to the
testing site (or perhaps call the testing site, for example with home
collection kits) and give them your number or code to learn the results of your
If you have been tested for HIV and the result is negative
and you never do things that might transmit HIV infection, then you and your
health care provider can decide whether you need to get tested again.
You are more likely to test positive for (be infected with)
HIV if you:
- Have ever shared injection drug needles and syringes or
- Have ever had sex without a condom with someone who had
• Have ever had a sexually transmitted disease, like chlamydia
- Received a blood transfusion or a blood clotting factor
between 1978 and 1985.
- Have ever had sex with someone who has done any of those
What can I do if the test shows I have HIV?
Although HIV is a very serious infection, many people with
HIV and AIDS are living longer, healthier lives today, thanks to new and
effective treatments. It is very important to make sure you have a doctor who
knows how to treat HIV. If you don't know which doctor to use, talk with a
health care professional or trained HIV counselor. If you are pregnant or are
planning to become pregnant, this is especially important.
There also are other things you can do for yourself to stay
healthy. Here are a few:
- Follow your doctor's instructions. Keep your appointments.
Your doctor may prescribe medicine for you. Take the medicine just the way he
or she tells you to because taking only some of your medicine gives your HIV
infection more chance to grow.
• Get immunizations (shots) to prevent infections such as
pneumonia and flu. Your doctor will tell you when to get these shots.
- If you smoke or if you use drugs not prescribed by your
- Eat healthy foods. This will help keep you strong, keep
your energy and weight up, and help your body protect itself.
- Exercise regularly to stay strong and fit.
- Get enough sleep and rest.
Seven Hills Medical Centers offer a rapid reagent Elisa Test
in their CLIA certified laboratory which will give you results in about 15
Human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, is the virus that
HIV/AIDS weakens a person's ability to fight infections and
HIV transmission can occur with unprotected sex or with needle sharing.
Symptoms of HIV vary widely. A person may have HIV symptoms or AIDS symptoms
without knowing it until they get HIV testing. There is no HIV cure at this
time although medications can delay the onset of AIDS.
HIV infections may be caused by one of two retroviruses,
HIV-1 or HIV-2. HIV-1 has caused a worldwide epidemic, but HIV-2 tends to be
limited to West Africa.
HIV progressively destroys some types of white blood cells
called CD4+ lymphocytes. Lymphocytes help defend the body against foreign
cells, infectious organisms, and cancer. Thus, when HIV destroys CD4+
lymphocytes, people become susceptible to attack by many other infectious
organisms. Many of the complications of HIV infection, including death, usually
result from these other infections and not from HIV infection directly.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the most severe
form of HIV infection. HIV infection is considered to be AIDS when at least one
serious complicating illness develops or the number (count) of CD4+ lymphocytes
HIV-1 originated in West-Central Africa in the first half of
the 20th century when a closely related chimpanzee virus first infected humans.
The global spread of HIV-1 has been documented to have occurred in the 1970s,
and AIDS was first recognized in 1981. In North America as of December 2007,
about 1.3 million people had HIV infection, and about 46,000 to 56,000 new
infections and 21,000 deaths occur each year. Worldwide, about 33.2 million
people are estimated to be infected. There are about 2.5 million new infections
and 2.1 million deaths each year. Most (95%) occur in developing countries. One
half occurs in women, and one in seven occur in children under 15 years old. In
parts of Africa, more than 30% of people between the ages of 15 and 45 are
infected, threatening to dramatically reduce the life expectancy of a whole
HIV is transmitted in the following ways:
- Sexual contact with an infected person, when the mucous
membrane lining the mouth, vagina, penis, or rectum is exposed to contaminated
body fluids (as occurs during unprotected sexual intercourse)
Injection or infusion of contaminated blood, as can occur with
blood transfusions, the sharing of needles, or an accidental prick with an
- Transfer from an infected mother to a child before birth,
during birth, or after birth through the mother's milk
Susceptibility to HIV infection increases when the skin or a
mucous membrane is torn or damaged-even minimally-as can happen during vigorous
vaginal or anal sexual intercourse.
- Sexual transmission of HIV is more likely
if either partner has herpes, syphilis, or another sexually transmitted disease
(STD) that causes breaks in the skin or inflammation of the genitals.
HIV can be transmitted even if neither partner has another STD or obvious
breaks in the skin.
- HIV transmission can also occur during oral sex, although
it is less common than during vaginal or anal intercourse.
In the United States, Europe, and Australia, HIV has mainly
been transmitted through male homosexual contact and the sharing of needles
among injecting drug users, but transmission through heterosexual contact has
been rapidly increasing. HIV transmission in Africa, the Caribbean, and Asia
occurs primarily between heterosexuals, and HIV infection occurs equally among
men and women.
In the United States, about 30% of adults who have HIV infection
are women. Before 1992, most American women with HIV were infected by injecting
drugs with contaminated needles, but now most are infected through sexual
A health care worker who is accidentally pricked with an
HIV-contaminated needle has about a 1 in 300 chance of contracting HIV. The
risk increases if the needle penetrates deeply or if the needle contains
HIV-contaminated blood (as with a needle used to draw blood) rather than simply
being coated with blood (as with a needle used to inject a drug or stitch a
cut). Infected fluid splashing into the mouth or eyes has less than a 1 in
1,000 chance of causing infection. Taking a combination of antiretroviral drugs
as soon after exposure as possible appears to reduce, but not eliminate, the
risk of becoming infected from an accident in a health care setting and is
People with hemophilia used to require frequent infusions of
whole blood or other blood products, and many became infected because the blood
products they received were contaminated with HIV. AIDS became the leading
cause of death among these people. However, since 1985 in most developed
countries, all blood collected for transfusion is tested for HIV, and when
possible, some blood products are treated with heat to eliminate the risk of
The current risk of HIV infection from a single blood
transfusion (which is carefully screened for HIV and other blood borne viruses
in most developed countries) is estimated to be less than 1 in 600,000.
Mothers and Children:
HIV infection in a large number of
women of childbearing age has led to an increase in HIV infection among. In
about 30 to 50% of pregnancies involving women infected with HIV who are not
treated, HIV is transmitted to the fetus through the placenta or at birth
during passage through the birth canal. Infants also can contract HIV through
breast milk. The risk from breastfeeding depends on the duration of
breastfeeding but may be as high as 75%.
Drug treatment of infected pregnant women during the 2nd and
3rd trimesters of pregnancy along with drugs given by vein during delivery can
reduce the risk of transmission by about two thirds or more. Delivery by
cesarean section and treating the mother at delivery and the baby for several
weeks after birth with drugs also reduce the risk. Infected mothers should not
breastfeed if they live in countries where formula feeding is safe and
affordable. However, in countries where infectious diseases and malnutrition
are common causes of infant mortality, and safe, affordable infant formula is
not available, the World Health Organization recommends that mothers
breastfeed. In such cases, the protection from potentially fatal infections
afforded by breastfeeding may counterbalance the risk of HIV transmission.
Transmission of HIV through its most common routes-sexual
contact or sharing of needles-is almost completely preventable. However, the
measures required for prevention-sexual abstinence or condom use (see Sexually
Transmitted Diseases: How to Use a Condom ) and access to clean needles-are
sometimes personally or socially unpopular. Many people have difficulty
changing their addictive or sexual behaviors, so they continue to put
themselves at risk of HIV infection. Also, safe sex practices are not
foolproof. For example, condoms can leak or break.
Vaccines for preventing HIV infection or slowing the
progression of AIDS in people who are already infected have so far been
elusive. Research continues, but in recent clinical trials, several promising
vaccines have not proved useful.
Other measures can help.
Circumcision of men, an
inexpensive, safe procedure, appears to reduce the risk of infection by about
Because HIV is not transmitted through the air or by casual
contact (such as touching, holding, or dry kissing), hospitals and clinics do
not isolate HIV-infected people unless they have another contagious infection.
Surfaces contaminated with HIV can easily be cleaned and disinfected because
HIV is inactivated by heat and by common disinfectants such as hydrogen
peroxide and alcohol. People who are likely to come into contact with blood or
other body fluids at their job should wear protective latex gloves, masks, and
eye shields. These universal precautions apply to body fluids from all people,
not just those from people with HIV, for two reasons: People with HIV may not
know that they are infected, and other viruses can be transmitted by body
People who have been exposed to HIV from a blood splash,
needlestick, or sexual contact may reduce the chance of infection by taking
anti-HIV drugs (antiretroviral drugs) for a short time. These drugs must be
started as soon as possible after the exposure. Taking two or three drugs for 4
weeks is currently recommended. Because the risk of infection varies, doctors
and infected people make decisions about preventive treatment individually
based on the type of exposure.
How can I find out more about HIV and AIDS?
You can call CDC-INFO at 1-800-CDC-INFO (232-4636); TTY
access 1-888-232-6348. CDC-INFO is staffed with people trained to answer your
questions about HIV and AIDS in a prompt and confidential manner in English or
Spanish, 24 hours per day. Staff at CDC-INFO can offer you a wide variety of
written materials and put you in touch with organizations in your area that
deal with HIV and AIDS.
On the Internet, you can get information on HIV and AIDS
from www.AIDS.gov or www.cdc.gov/hiv
SYPHILIS TESTING AND TREATMENT
Syphilis is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that
is caused by the bacteria Treponema pallidum.
It is most common in adults under
the age of 30 and is extremely contagious.
There are three stages of the
disease, and the symptoms vary by stage.
The first phase of the disease is called primary syphilis.
Painless sores will usually appear two to three weeks after infection. These
sores generally disappear four to six weeks after they make their appearance,
even without treatment. If the disease is not treated, secondary syphilis may
develop. This occurs in more than a third of cases and can include loss of
appetite, rash, fever, fatigue, aches and pains. These symptoms will also
disappear within a few weeks if left untreated.
The final phase of the disease is called tertiary syphilis
and may cause long-term damage to the heart, brain, skin, bones and nervous
system. Because of the potential severity of the disease, it's important to
diagnosis and treat syphilis as soon as possible. A simple blood test can be
performed to detect the presence of Treponema pallidum. Penicillin is effective
at curing the disease if detected early.
At Seven Hills Medical Centers, we offer private and
confidential syphilis testing and treatment. We conduct the
check-in/check-out process in the privacy of your own screening room for a
complete confidential experience. Our professional staff will treat you with
the utmost courtesy and respect, and do everything possible to make your visit
to our practice comfortable.
Call us today for same-day NY syphilis testing, results and
What is syphilis?
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by
the bacterium Treponema pallidum. It has often been called "the great
imitator" because so many of the signs and symptoms are indistinguishable
from those of other diseases.
How common is syphilis?
In the United States, health officials reported over 36,000
cases of syphilis in 2006, including 9,756 cases of primary and secondary
(P&S) syphilis. In 2006, half of all P&S syphilis cases were reported
from 20 counties and 2 cities; and most P&S syphilis cases occurred in
persons 20 to 39 years of age.
The incidence of P&S syphilis was highest in
women 20 to 24 years of age and in men 35 to 39 years of age.
Reported cases of
congenital syphilis in newborns increased from 2005 to 2006, with 339 new cases
reported in 2005 compared to 349 cases in 2006.
Between 2005 and 2006, the number of reported P&S
syphilis cases increased 11.8 percent. P&S rates have increased in males
each year between 2000 and 2006 from 2.6 to 5.7 and among females between 2004
and 2006. In 2006, 64% of the reported P&S syphilis cases were among men
who have sex with men (MSM).
How do people get syphilis?
Syphilis is passed from person to person through direct
contact with a syphilis sore. Sores occur mainly on the external genitals,
vagina, anus, or in the rectum. Sores also can occur on the lips and in the
Transmission of the organism occurs during vaginal, anal, or oral sex.
Pregnant women with the disease can pass it to the babies they are carrying.
Syphilis cannot be spread through contact with toilet seats, doorknobs,
swimming pools, hot tubs, bathtubs, shared clothing, or eating utensils.
What are the signs and symptoms in adults?
Many people infected with syphilis do not have any symptoms
for years, yet remain at risk for late complications if they are not treated.
Although transmission occurs from persons with sores who are in the primary or
secondary stage, many of these sores are unrecognized. Thus, transmission may
occur from persons who are unaware of their infection.
The primary stage of syphilis is usually marked by the
appearance of a single sore (called a chancre), but there may be multiple
sores. The time between infection with syphilis and the start of the first
symptom can range from 10 to 90 days (average 21 days). The chancre is usually
firm, round, small, and painless. It appears at the spot where syphilis entered
the body. The chancre lasts 3 to 6 weeks, and it heals without treatment.
However, if adequate treatment is not administered, the infection progresses to
the secondary stage.
Skin rash and mucous membrane lesions characterize the
secondary stage. This stage typically starts with the development of a rash on
one or more areas of the body. The rash usually does not cause itching. Rashes
associated with secondary syphilis can appear as the chancre is healing or
several weeks after the chancre has healed. The characteristic rash of
secondary syphilis may appear as rough, red, or reddish brown spots both on the
palms of the hands and the bottoms of the feet.
However, rashes with a different appearance may occur on
other parts of the body, sometimes resembling rashes caused by other diseases.
Sometimes rashes associated with secondary syphilis are so faint that they are
not noticed. In addition to rashes, symptoms of secondary syphilis may include
fever, swollen lymph glands, sore throat, patchy hair loss, headaches, weight
loss, muscle aches, and fatigue. The signs and symptoms of secondary syphilis
will resolve with or without treatment, but without treatment, the infection
will progress to the latent and possibly late stages of disease.
Late and Latent Stages
The latent (hidden) stage of syphilis begins when primary
and secondary symptoms disappear. Without treatment, the infected person will
continue to have syphilis even though there are no signs or symptoms; infection
remains in the body. This latent stage can last for years. The late stages of
syphilis can develop in about 15% of people who have not been treated for
syphilis, and can appear 10-20 years after infection was first acquired.
late stages of syphilis, the disease may subsequently damage the internal
organs, including the brain, nerves, eyes, heart, blood vessels, liver, bones,
and joints. Signs and symptoms of the late stage of syphilis include difficulty
coordinating muscle movements, paralysis, numbness, gradual blindness, and
dementia. This damage may be serious enough to cause death.
How does syphilis affect a pregnant woman and her baby?
The syphilis bacterium can infect the baby of a woman during
her pregnancy. Depending on how long a pregnant woman has been infected, she
may have a high risk of having a stillbirth (a baby born dead) or of giving
birth to a baby who dies shortly after birth. An infected baby may be born
without signs or symptoms of disease. However, if not treated immediately, the
baby may develop serious problems within a few weeks. Untreated babies may
become developmentally delayed, have seizures, or die.
How is syphilis diagnosed?
Some health care providers can diagnose syphilis by examining
material from a chancre (infectious sore) using a special microscope called a
dark-field microscope. If syphilis bacteria are present in the sore, they will
show up when observed through the microscope.
A blood test is another way to determine whether someone has
syphilis. Shortly after infection occurs, the body produces syphilis antibodies
that can be detected by an accurate, safe, and inexpensive blood test. A low
level of antibodies will likely stay in the blood for months or years even
after the disease has been successfully treated. Because untreated syphilis in
a pregnant woman can infect and possibly kill her developing baby, every
pregnant woman should have a blood test for syphilis.
What is the link between syphilis and HIV?
Genital sores (chancres) caused by syphilis make it easier
to transmit and acquire HIV infection sexually. There is an estimated 2- to
5-fold increased risk of acquiring HIV if exposed to that infection when
syphilis is present.
Ulcerative STDs that cause sores, ulcers, or breaks in the
skin or mucous membranes, such as syphilis, disrupt barriers that provide
protection against infections. The genital ulcers caused by syphilis can bleed
easily, and when they come into contact with oral and rectal mucosa during sex,
increase the infectiousness of and susceptibility to HIV. Having other STDs is
also an important predictor for becoming HIV infected because STDs are a marker
for behaviors associated with HIV transmission.
What is the treatment for syphilis?
Syphilis is easy to cure in its early stages. A single
intramuscular injection of penicillin, an antibiotic, will cure a person who
has had syphilis for less than a year. Additional doses are needed to treat
someone who has had syphilis for longer than a year. For people who are
allergic to penicillin, other antibiotics are available to treat syphilis.
There are no home remedies or over-the-counter drugs that will cure syphilis.
Treatment will kill the syphilis bacterium and prevent further damage, but it
will not repair damage already done.
Because effective treatment is available, it is important
that persons be screened for syphilis on an on-going basis if their sexual
behaviors put them at risk for STDs.
Persons who receive syphilis treatment must abstain from
sexual contact with new partners until the syphilis sores are completely
healed. Persons with syphilis must notify their sex partners so that they also
can be tested and receive treatment if necessary.
Will syphilis recur?
Having syphilis once does not protect a person from getting
it again. Following successful treatment, people can still be susceptible to
Only laboratory tests can confirm whether someone has syphilis.
Because syphilis sores can be hidden in the vagina, rectum, or mouth, it may
not be obvious that a sex partner has syphilis. Talking with a health care
provider will help to determine the need to be re-tested for syphilis after
How can syphilis be prevented?
The surest way to avoid transmission of sexually transmitted
diseases, including syphilis, is to abstain from sexual contact or to be in a
long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested
and is known to be uninfected.
Avoiding alcohol and drug use may also help prevent
transmission of syphilis because these activities may lead to risky sexual
behavior. It is important that sex partners talk to each other about their HIV
status and history of other STDs so that preventive action can be taken.
Genital ulcer diseases, like syphilis, can occur in both
male and female genital areas that are covered or protected by a latex condom,
as well as in areas that are not covered. Correct and consistent use of latex
condoms can reduce the risk of syphilis, as well as genital herpes and
chancroid, only when the infected area or site of potential exposure is
Condoms lubricated with spermicides (especially Nonoxynol-9
or N-9) are no more effective than other lubricated condoms in protecting
against the transmission of STDs. Use of condoms lubricated with N-9 is not
recommended for STD/HIV prevention. Transmission of an STD, including syphilis
cannot be prevented by washing the genitals, urinating, and/or douching after
sex. Any unusual discharge, sore, or rash, particularly in the groin area,
should be a signal to refrain from having sex and to see a doctor immediately.
STDS (SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES)
An STD can be present in your body for years and still show
no symptoms. The only way to know you or your partner have been exposed to an
STD is to get tested. Call now to discuss your STD testing options with one of
our experienced STD counselors.
Confidential STD testing is available for Herpes type 1
& 2, HIV, Syphilis, Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, Genital Warts as well as others.
We are experts in the diagnosis and treatment of all STDs.
We treat each patient with care and respect, and we will do
everything we can to make your visit as comfortable as possible. We provide HIV
testing with immediate results and STD testing with same day results. Our STD
testing in NYC includes:
Herpes Simplex I & II
And all other STDs
We are open Monday through Saturday for your convenience. We
offer same-day venereal disease testing with results generally available while
you wait. Should you require treatment, we prescribe medications and/or create
a treatment plan that same day.
Please contact us to schedule an appointment. 718 2511478/
100 % CONFIDENTIAL